.External impulses to a large extent determine our lives. Our life takes place in a setting where actions and images are becomming virtual. Man creates (consciously or unconsciously) its own artificial reality.
On the pampa, south of the famous Nascadesert in Peru (from where you are overlooking the Nascadrwawings), archaeologists have discovered the lost city Cahuachi from the makers of the Nasca lines.
Cahuachi was the ceremonial centre of the Nascaculture, about one thousand years ago and mysteriously disappeared five hundred years later.
What archaeologists have found there in recent decades in the cemeteries, gives some insight into the culture of the Nasca people and the possible meaning behind the mysterious desert drawings .
The population who had their habitat, was probably quite small, but because it was a pilgrimage place it grew into a very large ceremonial centre where many events took place.
These ceremonial events involved the Nasca drawings .
Because of the dry climate (probably one of the driest places on earth), very little rain and wind, discoveries in the cemeteries are well conserved .
At these cemeteries several artefacts and ceramic objects are found decorated with religious motifs.
The discovered pots and cups, in which mythological and symbolic forms are processed, have great similarities with the motifs and symbols in the desert drawings.
This piece of ancient weaving technique, which the nascapeople had developed , gives a little insight (as if you look at a map), how the lines are made in the desert.
The lines of Nazca are the best preserved and largest gathering of world geoglyphs.
Dozens of figures of animals, hundreds of geometric shapes and thousands of lines and line patterns are preserved in the sands of the desert and plateau of Peru.
Standing on the surface, the lines seem to disappear, but looking from the air towards it, the size and beauty of the lines becomes clear to see.
This shows that the Peruvians had geometric knowledge at that time. Some believe that the Nazca Indians could fly or had contact with aliens. Others say that the lines are intended as expressions of religion: the different figures could also be a symbolic path to the gods.
Theories on the leylines of prehistory remain enigmatic. To increase the understanding about this phenomenon it is useful to look at straight lines from the early Middle Ages, in written documents which have been preserved.
Leylines ,concrete or symbolic, are running across the landscape which have very different functions. Many lines seem to have had a spiritual, sacred character, such as an important part of a death cult . Others were profane, like Roman roads.
Across England, there are hundreds of stones, "rows" and "circles". Ranging from a few loose stones to hundreds of meters long avenues.
There are also in Ireland and Brittany again much to be found.
Often there are priests in white robes that may or may not make bloody sacrifices to foreign gods.
The function of these remarkable monuments are frequently described as observatories or as a landing beacon for aliens.
The dating of these huge stone circles and the associated access roads running from 3400 BC, until, (from a few loose stones of worship places), the middle of the Bronze Age (about 1500 BC).
The English landscape has like many other places in Europe, mystical and mythical places and unexplained forms in the landscape that may be left over from an archaic era.
Our ancestors were aware of strong points in the landscape. They felt that these places had a powerful energy, a divine energy.
Here they attempted to liaise with the gods and the cosmos.
Here their sanctuaries were located and practiced their religion. All shrines, places of worship in prehistoric megaliths and tumuli were located at the crossroads of energy lines, as previously mentioned.
This was done thousands of years. It was proved that churches, standing stones and cult places lie on straight lines, running over hills and through valleys regardless of the topography.
On the nature and meaning of these lines opinions vary.
In a number of ancient cultures an important journey is considered a straight line.
In general, a winding path, or at least a path that is not directly straight is usually associated with primitive cultures, and a straight line with civilization.
The funny thing is that there is demonstrable evidence that straight and narrow paths, encouraged by the Bible, had a specific meaning for just very old civilizations.
John the Baptist (so it’s written in the Bible) was the voice that cried "create a road through the desert for our Lord, even a path through the wilderness for our God." (Isaiah 40:3, Matthew 3:3).
Indians say about white people who build the roads, that they are curved, while Indian trails are very straight.
In Peru, paths are leading to holy places (often on mountain tops) and demons are waiting on those who dared to stray that way, it was thought.
The mystery regarding to the consistency or the use of straight lines in prehistoric times is only now evident by the many studies that are widely given to this fact.
Though of course the truth is that nature does not manifests itself in straight lines , but rather in circular and flowing movements.
What is actually in contradiction with straight lines and rectangular patterns.
One should not confuse human interference with natural features.
In England (and beyond) there are quite a few publications, illustrated with many maps, showing that prehistoric man would have considerable geometric knowledge, and a thorough understanding of the cosmic phenomena.
The structure of the evolving landscape would therefore be determined. This is a common basis for two research areas, namely that of the ley lines and astronomical orientation of megalithic monuments.
These are interesting phenomena, in which researchers look at the relationship between the locations (from prehistory to the Middle Ages) and their possible meanings, symbolic, cultural, historical, mythical.
Leylines = name for energy pathways where Christians and pagan peoples created their sacred places upon.
The ley research, which basically deals with a possible system in the locations relative to each of prehistoric cult sites, megaliths and shrines, was first examined by Alfred Watkins (The Old Straight Track Ways, 1925) he discovered a grid pattern of straight lines, assumed there was a link to important places.
Despite the boom in publications which have followed on, there is no scientific evidence provided.
So far it remains an intriguing hypotheses.
The word Ley, originally 17th century English from the word "Laia", meaning "path in a forest".
Watkins stated the straight caracter of ley lines, as the shortest route between places.
Many old roads and trails arose by following a line along the various points along a certain route.
The main markers could include megaliths, stone circles, burial mounds, ancient stone crosses, sacred trees, wells, old settlements on prehistoric relics built churches and chapels, ancient watchtowers, old fire beacons on mountain tops, cuts in the slope of hills, etc.
The focus of mass culture "pop art" gradually changed to more philosophical and therapeutic forms.
Land Art was a form of art that respond to that reflection. Nature has always been a kind of safe place for people who have turned their backs against industrialization and mass culture. To the social discontent that prevailed in the seventies, was expressed by land art artists. Artists were against capitalism. American artists compared the Vietnam War with capitalism and capitalism in the art. They wanted to escape the world of urban bustle, technologies, profit and pollution to start a dialogue with nature..
Nature as exhibition space was a way to break away from becoming involved with commercial galleries or space in a museum. Not just on principle, but also because Land art artists felt that a painting or other artwork that was added to an existing space was seen as unnecessary, the room was in fact already finished.
It is clear that there was a romantic and mystical aspect of this art form , engaged in nature was a kind of meditation for the artists.
Like a composer who reads the notes he hears, the game character is important in the work of artists like Opperheim, Walter de Maria and Richard Long, which is only happening on the surface of the landscape. These artists are more interested in conventional characters used as the true dimensions of allowing time and space . These are also the artists who haven't done any physically large interventions in the landscape , which I am interested in.
It is striking how both British and American land art around 1970 show similar signs of a new romantic relationship with the landscape.
Simultaneously embody both traditions, however, a radically different approach.
Long used the landscape as an alternative for the city and visualizes it as a 'pure ' state of virgin nature.
In addition, he uses a camera, pencil and paper.
He takes an honest attitude towards the wilderness as he has just discovered and temporarily takes possession. The myth of the landscape remains maintained.
Director Deren (born in Kiev) was a leading experimental filmmaker in New York in the forties and fifties. With Meshes of the Afternoon in 1947 she won the International Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival.
"Meshes of the Afternoon 1943" is probably one of the most discussed American avant-garde film ever.
Maya Deren clearly reaches back to the surrealism from the '20s (Un Chien Andalou, Luis Bunuel and Dali) but also points in a new direction.
Deren was one of the first women who started working in film, and in this movie for the first time in history elements as psychoanalysis, dream logic and inner reality were used.
The film is a dizzying, nightmarish quest for identity and consciousness, surrealism and dream logic played an important role.
Meshes of the Afternoon was one of the first American films where poetic expressiveness and symbolism were used above a linear plot, and had immense influence on just about everything that came after.
The film assembly from Deren was never seen before, cinematic time and space were deposed of their static character.
In films of Maya Deren, these filmic time and space elements are not bound by traditional rules, but they were used in a very creative way.
Maya Deren explores in her first influential experimental film an unconscious woman who daydreams.
This experimental black and white short film shows the director himself in a threatening dream world in which she always enters the same house.
The similarity between Meshes of the Afternoon and Un Chien Andalou, is the dream experience, generated by cinema.
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